Brassicas are annual crops which are highly productive and digestible and can be grazed 80 to 150 days after seeding, depending on the species (see table on back page). In addition, crude protein levels are high, varying from 15 to 25 percent in the herbage and 8 to 15 percent in the roots, depending on the level of nitrogen fertilization and weather conditions. After years of helping customers troubleshoot planting issues, I can safely say that “estimating/calculating field size” and “planting rates” are two of the most common problems. Grazing of leafy turnips can be as early as six weeks after sowing. The higher rates should be used if sowing into rougher seedbeds or if crops are irrigated. Seed bed preparation is extremely important in growing successful food plots. SEEDING RATE: Sow ½-¾" deep. Don't turn hungry animals that are not adapted to brassicas into a brassica pasture. This is only successful if sunlight and moisture are sufficient enough to atleast allow the collards to get established. 28 to 30. Several hybrids of brassica species are also used as forage crops, however, there is limited research information on the production and management of these hybrids. Some customers interseed collards into pasture ground to fill voids within the stand and increase the CP. Using a spreader that allows you to make fine adjustments to the opening gate is critical to be able to spread the seed evenly. Bison are lean animals with some fat but generally produce lean cuts of meat that should be cooked like any other wild game. In addition, the preplant incorporated herbicide, Treflan (Trifluralin), is labeled at 0.5 to 1.0 pint active ingredient per acre for control of annual grass and small seeded broadleaf weeds in brassicas. My brother Russell was the trapper, and I’d help some. Knowing the actual acreage or “square footage” of the area to be planted and taking the time to measure the appropriate amount of seed to properly cover that given field will go a long way in the success of the planting. Forage brassica crops can be spring-seeded to supplement the perennial cool-season pastures in Aug. and Sept. or summer-seeded to extend the grazing season in Nov. and Dec. Why do we need this? 5-6 lbs of brassica seed per acre will give you good results. 500mm+. The significance in the proportion of tops and roots is that the crude protein concentration (8 to 10%) of roots is approximately one-half of that in turnip tops. There are so many variables that can play into having a successful planting, but seed population is at the top. Annual mix of brassicas that will provide the protein needed for the rut and the nutrients needed for the long winter months. Brassicas like moist soils with good soil drainage and grow best on soils with a pH between 5.3 and 6.8 with medium levels of phosphorus and potassium. Few crops offer as much potential as do brassicas to improve livestock carrying capacity from August through December. The main disorders are bloat, atypical pneumonia, nitrate poisoning, hemolytic anemia (mainly with kale), hypothyroidism, and polioencephalomalacia. I’d started predator calling when I was about 8 or 9 years old. Plants in the brassica family (turnips, beets, rape for example) are very small seeds that, depending on the variety, can have broadcast rates as low as 5 to 10 pounds per acre. In the second instance, swede or kale would be planted in spring, or rape, turnip, and turnip hybrids would be planted in late July or early August, and growth allowed to accumulate until November or December. The Commander Mossy Oak Hunting Edition boasts Mossy Oak’s Break-Up Country Camo and a host of other great accessories. With its superior regrowth potential, Winfred can be grazed up to four times within a growing season. Ideally you should spread it conservative enough to cover the field in two different directions to ensure even seed distribution. When seeding into a sod, suppress the sod long enough to allow the brassicas to establish (two to three weeks). Varieties differ in their resistance to diseases, but this often is not evident until the crop is more than 80 days of age and the plants are reaching full production. kg/ha, and turnips and swedes at 0.5 1.0 kg/ha. Brassica crops should not constitute more than 75 percent of the animal's diet. HARVEST: Use as a forage crop for winter grazing, or plow under in springtime before flowering. Even under the best of circumstances your odds of killing a mature buck are fairly low. They can also be planted in combination with other forages such as clovers, chicory or some type of cereal grain. Generally, 'Forage Star' turnip and 'Rangi' rape are better suited for stockpiling than are other varieties because of lower disease infestation. And while this process comes with plenty of moving parts to consider, one of the most important decisions will likely be choosing between a fixed and adjustable interest rate. As long as you factor in the bucket, pale or bag to put the seed in, some digital fish scales work well for weighing seed and are relatively compact. In my experience, it is best to use a hand-spreader for these small seeds so you have good control of the amount you are putting out. Even though the ongoing drought won't suppress the swelling population of waterfowl this year, it will affect their migrations. I carry a scale in my tool box that allows me to measure seed very closely while in the field. When preparing a tille… A coyote hears up to 45,000 Hz, and a bobcat can hear up to 64,000-65,000 Hz. Excellent harvest plot for the late season. But all things being average and equal, planting too heavy/thick affects more gamekeepers than any of the other concerns. Another scenario that can cause overcrowding and competition is uneven distribution of seed. Leafy turnips offer greater flexibility than other brassica species. You can nudge them slightly in your favor by minimizing disturbance and maximizing the ability of your property to attract and hold more and older deer. FORMULA: Jackpot Forage Turnip, Vivant Hybrid Brassica, Trophy Rape, Purple Top Turnip. They can also be broadcast or seeded into an herbicide-killed sod with a no-till drill. Soil Types: Good drainage soil Seeding Rate: 8-10 lbs. Crude protein concentration of brassicas ranges from 8 to 10 percent in turnip roots to 30 percent in rape leaves. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. When preparing a tilled seedbed for brassica planting, plow the ground several weeks before planting to Once established, brassicas are very competitive with weeds. If we could hear the sounds of the animals in distress, there would not be a need for an ultrasonic predator caller. When during the growing season these are planted, how long they have to grow, even the amount of moisture and nutrients they receive at different times can impact root growth verses top production. These very small seeds can grow a lot of tonnage in a … In our last blog post we covered starting artichoke transplants and “hardening off”, the all-important period of acclimating your seedlings to the outside world. Brassica Seeding Rates Plants in the brassica family (turnips, beets, rape for example) are very small seeds that, depending on the variety, can have broadcast rates as low as 5 to 10 pounds per acre. NOTE: Do not use in rotation prior to other brassica crops as they harbor similar insect and disease pests. Cereal grains are often used as the bulk of many blends that contain brassica, cereal grains, clover, etc. $ 17.00 – $ 55.00. In addition to the nitrogen applied at planting, when multiple grazings are planned, an additional 70 pounds should be applied between 60 and 80 days after seeding to increase yield and crude protein level of the brassica tops. The seeds should be planted in rows 6 to 8 inches apart and not more than one-half inch deep. We produce brassica seeds and serve as a brassica seed company for many customers. I might add another back to basics step that gets so commonly overlooked when planting brassica’s is planting the seed too heavy. One Shot Brassica Mix. In general, all swede varieties are recommended for late fall grazing. Don’t let the rain stop you from enjoying the great outdoors. If planting is delayed past the optimum seeding date for spring-planted small grains, increase seeding rates by about 1 percent for each day planting is delayed. Unlike perennial forage crops, the dry matter digestibility of brassicas does not decrease markedly with increasing plant maturity. In the first instance, brassicas would be planted in May or early June because spring rains will help assure production for August and September grazing (Figure 1). I was about 10 years old when I called in my first coyote in 1963. The seeding rate must be adjusted so ensure adequate growth of the companion species. Take BioLogic Full Draw for example, a blend that contains 25% brassica, 45% grains, and 30% annual clovers. Strip grazing small areas of brassica at a time provides the most efficient utilization (Figure 2). Fixed or adjustable rate: Which is currently best? Generally, yields of rape varieties in Pennsylvania are maximized with two 90-day growth periods. Winfred forage brassica is hybrid cross between kale and turnip. Another issue with seeding rates in brassica crops that produce bulbs (like turnips or sugar beets) is bulb or tuber production versus “tops” or forage output. Swede yields are higher than those of turnip, although growth is slower and requires 150 to 180 days to reach maximum production. Rape is a fast growing brassica that is heat, cold and drought tolerant. I was a hide hunter during my last couple of years of high school and all the way through college. Approximately two weeks before planting the herbicide should be applied to the grass sod. Turnip, rape, or stemless kale could be used for this purpose. The seeds should be planted in rows 6 to 8 inches apart and not more than one-half inch deep. The higher seeding rates are recommended for spring plantings. Summer-seeded brassicas can extend the potential grazing season by providing forage for fall and winter grazing. Tankard type summer turnips are popular as a milking feed due to their exceptionally high yield potential from a single graze. However, appropriate use of insecticides may be warranted if insect populations become severe. However, phosphorus applications decrease crude protein concentration of the brassica forage. Swede usually produces a short stem (neck), but can have stems 2½ feet long when grown with tall crops which shade the swede. The proportions of tops and roots varies markedly depending on variety, crop age, and planting date. The variety 'Calder' is cold hardy in central Pennsylvania and thus ideal for stockpiling and for late fall or early winter grazing. One kilogram of forage rape seed per hectare should provide enough plants to JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. The pasture should be grazed for a short time period and the livestock removed to allow the Brassica to regrow. Like turnip, swede produces a large edible root. Gracie Herbold: 2018 Bassmaster High School Fishing Championship Runner Up, Drought To Affect 2012 Waterfowl Migrations. To furnish a high quality food source for post-rut bucks and pregnant does. Our proprietary brassica seeds have been engineered to create vast amounts of quality forage when whitetails need it most. ATV and pull-behind spreaders can work so long as the gate opening can be fine-tuned for these tiny seeds. Therefore, greater root production tends to reduce the crude protein yield of the total crop. If this blend is planted at the correct rate for a given acreage, you will see everything in the blend flourish in the field. Grazing large areas increases trampling and waste of the available forage. Understanding Seeding Rates, Recommended Planting Rates, and Pure Live Seed (PLS), July 2009 (Louisiana). Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. All varieties produce primarily tops during the first 45 days of growth. Turnips can be planted as a stand-alone crop at a rate of 5 lbs./acre. This site was the one location where dwarf-Brassica was the … LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Download PDF Save For Later Print Purchase Print. Varieties of kale differ markedly in winter hardiness, rate of establishment, stem development, and time required to reach maturity. When seeding into grass sod, it’s important to suppress with paraquat or glyphosate herbicides two to three weeks before planting. Growth slows or ceases at maturity and yields plateau until leaves senesce and die. Brassicas can be planted with either no-till or conventional tillage. Grazing can begin when the forage is about 12 inches tall (70 to 90 days after planting. Stemless kale attains maturity in approximately 90 days, allowing two crops per year, whereas varieties that develop stems require 150 to 180 days to attain maximum production. Regrowth may be grazed in as few as four weeks after the first grazing. For example, brown sarson (Brassica … When turnips are to be grazed twice, only the tops should be grazed during the first grazing. Mature Whitetail Bucks: Why Don’t I See More. per acre Planting Depth: ¼ inch Planting Date: Spring and Fall Pasja Hybrid an early maturing hybrid forage brassica and is a cross between a forage turnip and a forage rape. With its particularly leafy growth, Winfred is highly digestible and has good palatability for grazing whitetail, cattle, and sheep. All brassica crops require good soil drainage and a soil pH between 5.3 and 6.8 for optimum production. Establishment Cover crops are seeded either by broadcasting the seed onto the surface of a prepared seedbed, using a conventional seed drill, minimum tillage drill or … Table 1. Winfred forage brassica is a cross between a turnip and a kale, generally termed a rape.. Winfred is the most versatile of the brassicas, suitable for a wide range of soil fertility and environmental conditions, stock classes, and sowing times.. Winfred has good frost tolerance and better regrowth potential, retaining leaf and stem quality in frosty or cold conditions. Leaves: Large, flat leaves, 30-50 cm long and 20-40 cm) wide; yellow, cross-shaped flowers with four petals; and all produce sickle shaped pods containing tiny round seeds. Plant: Leafy, plant 0.6-1.2 m tall; deep tap root, no bulb. For example, a larger seed such as turf type fescue will be seeded at 10 lbs per 1,000 square feet. Introduce grazing animals to brassica pastures slowly. Optimization of seeding rate and row spacing are critical to maximize harvested yield in oilseed rape (Kuai et al., 2015). Brassica Blend is a mixture of fast growing brassicas that produces a lush forage to attract and hold deer to your plots from mid- to late-fall. Brassicas see most usage as ’emergency forage’ in drought years, but they can be used to provide forage any time from spring through winter. Forage yields of spring-planted rape increase until plants become physiologically mature. However, performance of 'Emerald' and 'Winfred' rape varieties is best with one 180-day growth period, and yields of rape hybrids are greatest with 60 days of growth before the first harvest and a 30-day growth period before the second harvest. Seasonal sowing guide for forage brassicas . However, brassica seed can also be broadcast and incorporated into tilled seedbeds by cultipacking. The Importance of a Well-Prepared Seed Bed, Rated Red Gives Can-Am Commander a Test Drive, Call Frequency on Ultrasonic Electronic Calls for Predators, Gary Roberson Calls Predators and Becomes a Predator Call Manufacturer, Tips for Hiking in the Rain – 7 Ways to Stay Dry, Bison Striploin with Blackberry, Red Wine & Balsamic Reduction, The First Coyote Gary Roberson Ever Called In, Clean H2O: How to Wash Your Hydration Bladder, 60 Years of Predator Hunting with Gary Roberson, Resident Goose Hunting with Richie McKnight, Tackling the Tackle Box: Restocking What You’ll Need for Future Fishing Trips. Research has shown yield reductions of 40 percent when disease infected brassica crops were stockpiled for 45 days. For more GameKeeper tips, read “7 Tips To Keep Weeds Under Control.” One of the most common problems in food plots, especially perennials, is weed competition. In closing, remember, for food plots or other wildlife plantings, seed population doesn’t have to be exact, but you do want to come as close as possible for a successful plant growth and maximum yield. Another option for no-till establishment would be to apply a manure slurry to the sod, to burn the sod back, and then no-till plant the brassica seeds through the slurry. Generally, rape and kale crops are sown at 3 5 . Forage brassicas are a broad family covering everything from purple top turnips to kale. Seed can be broadcast or no-tilled into suppressed sod but planting rate should be increased by 20-30%. Planting and grazing sequence for forage brassicas. See Rated Red Test out the Can-Am Commander Hunting Edition on the trails at Land Between the Lakes, Kentucky. Brassica dry matter yield will depend on the production potential of the soil and environment, and the brassica species. ... Because Brassica spp. Gary Roberson has just written a new book, “Eyes Front: 60 Years of Hunting the Hunters,” available from Burnham Brothers that contains six chapters on rattling whitetails, 10 chapters on calling turkeys and the rest of the book on calling predators – starting with the basics and continuing to the latest information on ultrasonic callers. The higher seeding rates are recommended for spring plantings. Ruminant diets should not contain more than 75 percent brassica forage because the fiber content of brassica crops is too low for maintenance of proper rumen activity. 'Premier' has consistently survived winters in central Pennsylvania, whereas other varieties of kale usually are winter-killed in December. Rape is a multi-stemmed crop with fibrous roots. I like to hunt resident geese around Kentucky because the season comes in early, and the bag limits are somewhat liberal. Good stands can be established by planting 3.5 to 4 pounds per acre of kale or rape, or 1.5 to 2 pounds per acre of swede or turnip. If you own a firearm and have gone down to your local gun shop to pick up a box of ammunition within the last six months, you have probably asked the same thing - where is the ammo? Each grass seed we offer specifies the planting rate per 1,000 square feet at which the grass seed should be planted. Prepared by Marvin H. Hall, assistant professor of agronomy, and Jerry Jung, adjunct professor of agronomy. However, brassica seed can also be broadcast and incorporated into tilled seedbeds by cultipacking. Example of strip grazing method for brassica grazing. Several seed companies market turnip and brassica mixes that are more suitable for deer and food plots. As previously mentioned, forage brassicas can be grown to supplement perennial cool-season pastures in August and September or to extend the grazing season in November and December. Wetlands need to dry on occasion to remain productive, but the scale of this year's drought adds pressure to migrating birds. Figure 2. Dwarf Essex Rape - A forage brassica plant which is used extensively in deer food plots and for livestock grazing. Planting rates vary between grasses depending on the size of the seed. If this blend gets over-seeded, the brassicas can quickly overtake the grains and clover. Dry matter digestibility generally exceeds 90 percent for all plant parts except kale stems at maturity. In addition, the digestibility of the forage remains high over a relatively longer period than perennial crops. Overall, the HYB performed better than the OP, and the full economic value of high-yielding canola cultivars was only realized when fertilizer and seeding rates were at or above the current recommended rates. When seeding into a suppressed grass sward, nitrogen application tends to increase the efficacy of the suppressing herbicide and reduces the proportion of grass in the brassica-grass sward. The obvious question is: Which is better? Table 1 gives the basic seeding information and use of different types of brassicas. Plus sign (+) if content is closed, 'X' if content is open. Plants like turnips or radishes that are planted too heavily will usually produce a very small bulb or tuber in response to the overcrowding. The stemless type kale (e.g. The more common hybrids include a cross between Chinese cabbage (Brassica campesteris sensulato L.) and rape ('Perko'), turnip ('Tyfon' and 'Buko'), and swede ('Wairangi'). On the other hand, stockpiled tops appear to be more vulnerable to weather and pest damage than roots. Brassica seed is grown and sold by Allied Seed. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. For tips on tackling the tackle box, restock what you’ll need for future fishing trips, and use your downtime to clean, inventory, restock, and organize. Combining wild boar bacon into a batch of home-baked beans will leave you wanting to put another pig in the freezer. seed may be scarce, it is best to call seed suppliers a few months prior to planting … Researchers have discovered that these disorders can be avoided by adhering to two management rules: Brassica crops can produce high yields of highly digestible forage during periods when perennial forages have limited production. In some cases, you may be planting small fields out of a large bulk bag of seed. Brassica Seedlings in an HMOS Greenhouse. Suggested seeding rates: Seed 4 lbs/acre alone, 1-2 lbs/acre in a mixed stand. Rape may be grazed to a 10 inch stubble and 1 to 4 grazing periods may occur, depending on planting date and growing conditions. The addition of Purple Top turnip provides an attractive food source that will sustain the draw of your plot through late fall and winter after the tops are gone. Insects that feed on brassicas, such as aphids, flea beetles, and imported cabbage worms, are not a consistent problem in Pennsylvania. Good stands can be established by planting 3.5 to 4 pounds per acre of kale or rape, or 1.5 to 2 pounds per acre of swede or turnip. However, precautions should be made at planting to reduce weed competition during brassica establishment. Application under this condition tends to increase yield if nitrogen is not limiting growth. The greater seeding rates are recommended for broadcast plantings. USES: To attract and provide nutrition for deer. Enterprise Type. I looked at the competition aspect of a bass fishing team and thought being a part of this team. Apply 75 pounds of nitrogen at seeding to stimulate establishment and growth. With over 175,000 seed per pound, adding just a few pounds to a mixture will surfice. During the same period, other turnip varieties have nearly equal top and root production, except 'Purple Top' has a greater root than top production. The following recommendations will improve the chances of successful brassica establishment. Planting date. Spring-seeded brassica crops can be used to supplement low producing cool-season pastures or as insurance against summer drought. Like with most issues surrounding rural real estate, that answer is not as simple as it may seem. The dwarf-Brassica seeding rate generally had no effect on crop grain yields except at the south central Minnesota location where all but the lowest seeding rate of Brassica decreased corn grain yields. No-till establishment into existing sod will reduce the risk of these disorders because of grass in the brassica pasture. 3-4 kg/ha. Forage Brassica. Figure 1. With their high digestibility and low fiber content, brassicas should actually be considered as "concentrates" rather than "forage" in nutritional planning for livestock. Todd Amenrud. These plants readily cross with each other and most of the varieties we sell are actually crosses between turnips and forage rape. Crop height of the stemless type is approximately 25 inches, whereas that of narrow stem kale is 60 inches with primary stems often 2 inches in diameter. Consult local expertise and start with small plots or experiment with several seeding rates. In the world of food plots and planting for wildlife, maximum yield is usually not the end goal, but rather how effective it was at attracting and feeding the desired species of animals. Studies in southwestern Pennsylvania showed that turnip can accumulate dry matter in October as fast as field corn does in August. Some hybrids have fibrous roots which will not be readily grazed by livestock. Keep your hydration bladder clean, dry, and free of bad odor and bacteria with these easy tips. The stems vary in length, diameter, and in palatability to livestock. These very small seeds can grow a lot of tonnage in a growing season if the correct seeding rate is followed. I tend to apply about 5 lbs/acre of brassica regardless of which type. Sowing Rate. All brassica crops require good soil drainage and a soil pH between 5.3 and 6.8 for optimum production. Broadcast at 8-14 lb./acre or drill at 5-10 lb./acre. Seedhead: Yellow, cross-shaped flowers with four petals; produce sickle shaped pods. Striploin steaks are considered by many to be the perfect texture and flavor for grilling. With adequate fertility, brassicas can produce amounts of digestible energy per acre equivalent to corn yielding 115 bushel per acre. Attempt establishment only on well drained soils. Weeds rob your plot of essential nutrients, water, and root space. Phosphorus and potassium soil test levels should be in the optimum range prior to planting. These crops grow very fast, reaching near maximum production levels in 80 to 90 days. 'Premier') has a faster rate of establishment than varieties which produce stems. SEEDING RATE: Sow 5 pounds per acre. Attention should be paid to the percentages at which the different seeds are used. Read pesticide labels and precautions before using either of these herbicides. Do this up to a maximum rate of 1.6 million seeds per acre. Unfortunately, the nitrogen induced yield increase in turnip and swede tops causes a reduction in root yield. A versatile, early maturing forage rape variety, Winfred is a cross between turnip and kale and a … Many planting failures can be attributed to poor seedling survival or lack of germination due to incorrect planting depth and poor seed bed prep. Varieties differ in when this occurs, however, 'Rangi' rape retains its leaves longer than most varieties. After all, these plantings are being consumed by critters, not by a combine. Sixty to 90 days after seeding, turnip varieties such as 'Savannah' and 'All Top' continue to produce a high proportion of tops. Food Plot Seed for Wildlife Brassica Seed Blend is a 100% brassica blend that is easy to establish and highly preferred by deer during the winter months. Its no secret at Biologic, we love brassicas. Know your plot size, use appropriate amounts of seed, and become acquainted with your equipment. “I just started bass fishing about 2-1/2 years ago,” said 16-year-old Gracie Herbold of Headland High School in Headland, Alabama. This is a lot better than guesswork and will not only save you seed, but help your crops by eliminating the chance of over-seeding. Growing "out of season" (October/November) makes turnip a valuable crop for late fall grazing. If the phosphorus level is below 55 pounds per acre, the application of phosphorus during brassica development may be warranted. Grazing management is important to optimize the true potential of these crops. Rape is more easily managed for multiple grazings than are the other brassica species. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Some varieties regrow to allow 1-3 repeat grazings. For most land buyers, purchasing rural property means taking out a loan. The best brassica seed is sold by our company. When preparing a tilled seedbed for brassica planting, plow the ground several weeks before planting to allow weed seeds to germinate before secondary tillage is completed to form a firm and fine seedbed that is free of weeds. These characteristics make the use of brassica crops in grazing situations very flexible and appealing to producers utilizing pastures in their livestock operation. By comparison, dairy quality alfalfa hay is approximately 70 percent digestible. Average yields in Pennsylvania have been 3.1 tons of dry matter per acre at 90 days after planting. Brassica plants grow fast, require a lot of space, and do not like competition from other plants. Turnip regrowth is initiated at the top of the root, so this part of the plant should not be removed until the second and final grazing when the whole plant can be consumed. Stockpiling (delaying grazing until a date later than plant maturity) should not be attempted in fields were brassicas have high levels of foliar disease at maturity. Oats … However, when seeds in the brassica family get spread too heavy for the given amount of soil, competition for root space, moisture and nutrients can quickly become too great, resulting in a stunted crop or field die-off. A look at which brassicas are best at various times of the season and under different conditions. Grains are also easier to spread and allow for a larger margin of error for over-application. Ideally, the grass sod should be grazed through June with the grazing prior to brassica seeding being very close. On the opposite end of the spectrum are cereal grains such as wheat, triticale or oats that can have seeding rates up to 120 pounds per acre. Slower maturing kale and swede average over 4 tons per acre at 120 days after planting. Mature forage rape is one of the best crops available for fattening lambs and flushing ewes.